Text Mining Early Printed English

EEBO N-gram Browser

Select an ngram size and spelling type, enter search terms and pos (parts of speech, optional), select (or not) the graph smoothing and rolling average options, and click Draw Graph.

A search term can be:

  • A whole word (love) or words separated by commas (love,loue), or
  • A regular expression (/lo[uv]e/) or expressions separated by commas (/lo[uv]e/,/abo[uv]e/). Note that "/" delimiters are required for regular expressions. Note that we assume that regular expressions start at the beginning of a word and finish at the end of a word; so, for example, /lo[uv]e/ will match "love" and "loue". To find strings inside larger words, use the ".*" modifiers. for example, /.*love.*/ will match "beloved", "loved" and "glove".

A pos (part of speech) can be:

  • A value selected from the autocomplete helper on the input field, or
  • A fully formed pos value (n1) or values separated by commas (n1,n2), or
  • A regular expression (/n.*/) or expressions separated by commas (/n.*/,/v.*/), or

Please note that we do put a limit on the complexity of queries. If you exceed those limits, we return what we can, and provide a message to that effect.

For more about regular expressions, please see our post on Using the N-gram Browser. For a full list of the nupos part-of-speech codes, please see the section titled "Parts of Speech Table" in Morphology and NUPOS, an article written by John Norstad.

ngramSize: unigrams bigrams trigrams
spellings: original regularized lemmas

gram 1: search term: pos:
gram 2: search term: pos:
gram 3: search term: pos:
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Help for nupos part-of-speech tags:

If you type one or two letters into a pos input field, you'll see a subset of the pos tags available for use in queries. And, of course, you may leave the pos input field(s) blank, and the browser will disregard part-of-speech when graphing search terms. Try typing:

a to see all adverbs pos
c to see all conjunctions pos
d to see determiner pos
j to see all adjectives pos
n to see all nouns pos
pi, pn, to see po for all pronouns pos
pp to see all prepositions pos
uh to see all interjections pos
v to see all verbs pos

The full set of part of speech tags is:

a-acp -- acp word as adverb
av -- adverb
av-an -- noun-adverb as adverb
av-c -- comparative adverb
avc-jn -- comparative adj/noun as adverb
av-d -- determiner/adverb as adverb
av-dc -- comparative determiner/adverb as adverb
av-ds -- superlative determiner as adverb
av-dx -- negative determiner as adverb
av-j -- adjective as adverb
av-jc -- comparative adjective as adverb
av-jn -- adj/noun as adverb
av-js -- superlative adjective as adverb
av-n1 -- noun as adverb
av-s -- superlative adverb
avs-jn -- superlative adj/noun as adverb
av-vvg -- present participle as adverb
av-vvn -- past participle as adverb
av-x -- negative adverb
c. -- all conjunctions,
c-acp -- acp word as conjunction
cc -- coordinating conjunction
cc-acp -- acp word as coordinating conjunction
c-crq -- wh-word as conjunction
ccx -- negative conjunction
crd -- numeral
cs -- subordinating conjunction
cst -- 'that' as conjunction
-- all determiners,
d -- determiner
dc -- comparative determiner
dg -- determiner in possessive use
ds -- superlative determiner
dt -- article
dx -- negative determiner as adverb
fw-fr -- French word
fw-ge -- German word
fw-gr -- Greek word
fw-it -- Italian word
fw-la -- Latin word
fw-mi -- word in unspecified other language
j. -- all adjectives,
j -- adjective
j-av -- adverb as adjective
jc -- comparative adjective
jc-jn -- comparative adj/noun
jc-vvg -- present participles as comparative adjective
jc-vvn -- past participle as comparative adjective
j-jn -- adjective-noun
jp -- proper adjective
js -- superlative adjective
js-jn -- superlative adj/noun
js-vvg -- present participle as superlative adjective
js-vvn -- past participle as superlative adjective
j-vvg -- present participle as adjective
j-vvn -- past participle as adjective,
-- all nouns,
n1 -- singular, noun
n1-an -- noun-adverb as singular noun
n1-j -- adjective as singular noun
n2 -- plural noun
n2-acp -- acp word as plural noun
n2-an -- noun-adverb as plural noun
n2-av -- adverb as plural noun
n2-dx -- determiner/adverb negative as plural noun
n2-j -- adjective as plural noun
n2-jn -- adj/noun as plural noun
n2-vdg -- present participle as plural noun, 'do'
n2-vhg -- present participle as plural noun, 'have'
n2-vvg -- present participle as plural noun
n2-vvn -- past participle as plural noun
ng1 -- singular possessive, noun
ng1-an -- noun-adverb in singular possessive use
ng1-j -- adjective as possessive noun
ng1-jn -- adj/noun as possessive noun
ng1-vvn -- past participle as possessive noun
ng2 -- plural possessive, noun
ng2-jn -- adj/noun as plural possessive noun
n-jn -- adj/noun as noun
njp -- proper adjective as noun
njp2 -- proper adjective as plural noun
njpg1 -- proper adjective as possessive noun
njpg2 -- proper adjective as plural possessive noun
np1 -- singular, proper noun
np2 -- plural, proper noun
npg1 -- singular possessive, proper noun
npg2 -- plural possessive, proper noun
np-n1 -- singular noun as proper noun
np-n2 -- plural noun as proper noun
np-ng1 -- singular possessive noun as proper noun
n-vdg -- present participle as noun, 'do'
n-vhg -- present participle as noun, 'have'
n-vvg -- present participle as noun
n-vvn -- past participle as noun
ord -- ordinal number
p-acp -- acp word as preposition
pc-acp -- acp word as particle
pi.|^pn.|^po. -- all pronouns,
pi -- singular, indefinite pronoun
pi2 -- plural, indefinite pronoun
pi2x -- plural, indefinite pronoun
pig -- singular possessive, indefinite pronoun
pigx -- possessive case, indefinite pronoun
pix -- indefinite pronoun
pn22 -- 2nd person, personal pronoun
pn31 -- 3rd singular, personal pronoun
png11 -- 1st singular possessive, personal pronoun
png12 -- 1st plural possessive, personal pronoun
png21 -- 2nd singular possessive, personal pronoun
png22 -- 2nd person, possessive, personal pronoun
png31 -- 3rd singular possessive, personal pronoun
png32 -- 3rd plural possessive, personal pronoun
pno11 -- 1st singular objective, personal pronoun
pno12 -- 1st plural objective, personal pronoun
pno21 -- 2nd singular objective, personal pronoun
pno31 -- 3rd singular objective, personal pronoun
pno32 -- 3rd plural objective, personal pronoun
pns11 -- 1st singular subjective, personal pronoun
pns12 -- 1st plural subjective, personal pronoun
pns21 -- 2nd singular subjective, personal pronoun
pns31 -- 3rd singular subjective, personal pronoun
pns32 -- 3rd plural objective, personal pronoun
po11 -- 1st singular, possessive pronoun
po12 -- 1st plural, possessive pronoun
po21 -- 2nd singular, possessive pronoun
po22 -- 2nd person possessive pronoun
po31 -- 3rd singular, possessive pronoun
po32 -- 3rd plural, possessive pronoun
-- all prepositions,
pp -- preposition
pp-f -- preposition 'of'
px11 -- 1st singular reflexive pronoun
px12 -- 1st plural reflexive pronoun
px21 -- 2nd singular reflexive pronoun
px22 -- 2nd plural reflexive pronoun
px31 -- 3rd singular reflexive pronoun
px32 -- 3rd plural reflexive pronoun
pxg21 -- 2nd singular possessive, reflexive pronoun
q-crq -- interrogative use, wh-word
r-crq -- relative use, wh-word
sy -- alphabetical or other symbol
uh. -- all interjections,
uh -- interjection
uh-av -- adverb as interjection
uh-crq -- wh-word as interjection
uh-dx -- negative interjection
uh-j -- adjective as interjection
uh-jn -- adjective/noun as interjection
uh-n -- noun as interjection
uh-v -- verb as interjection
-- all verbs,
vb2 -- 2nd singular present of 'be'
vb2-imp -- 2nd plural present imperative, 'be'
vb2x -- 2nd singular present, 'be'
vbb -- present tense, 'be'
vbbx -- present tense negative, 'be'
vbd -- past tense, 'be'
vbd2 -- 2nd singular past of 'be'
vbd2x -- 2nd singular past, 'be'
vbdp -- plural past tense, 'be'
vbdx -- past tense negative, 'be'
vbg -- present participle, 'be'
vbi -- infinitive, 'be'
vbm -- 1st singular, 'be'
vbmx -- 1st singular negative, 'be'
vbn -- past participle, 'be'
vbp -- plural present, 'be'
vbz -- 3rd singular present, 'be'
vbzx -- 3rd singular present negative, 'be'
vd2 -- 2nd singular present of 'do'
vd2-imp -- 2nd plural present imperative, 'do'
vd2x -- 2nd singular present negative, 'do'
vdb -- present tense, 'do'
vdbx -- present tense negative, 'do'
vdd -- past tense, 'do'
vdd2 -- 2nd singular past of 'do'
vdd2x -- 2nd singular past negative, verb
vddp -- plural past tense, 'do'
vddx -- past tense negative, 'do'
vdg -- present participle, 'do'
vdi -- infinitive, 'do'
vdn -- past participle, 'do'
vdp -- plural present, 'do'
vdz -- 3rd singular present, 'do'
vdzx -- 3rd singular present negative, 'do'
vh2 -- 2nd singular present of 'have'
vh2-imp -- 2nd plural present imperative, 'have'
vh2x -- 2nd singular present negative, 'have'
vhb -- present tense, 'have'
vhbx -- present tense negative, 'have'
vhd -- past tense, 'have'
vhd2 -- 2nd singular past of 'have'
vhdp -- plural past tense, 'have'
vhdx -- past tense negative, 'have'
vhg -- present participle, 'have'
vhi -- infinitive, 'have'
vhn -- past participle, 'have'
vhp -- plural present, 'have'
vhz -- 3rd singular present, 'have'
vhzx -- 3rd singular present negative, 'have'
vm2 -- 2nd singular present of modal verb
vm2x -- 2nd singular present negative, modal verg
vmb -- present tense, modal verb
vmb1 -- 1st singular present, modal verb
vmbx -- present tense negative, modal verb
vmd -- past tense, modal verb
vmd2 -- 2nd singular past of modal verb
vmd2x -- 2nd singular present, modal verb
vmdp -- plural past tense, modal verb
vmdx -- past negative, modal verb
vmi -- infinitive, modal verb
vmn -- past participle, modal verb
vmp -- plural present tense, modal verg
vv2 -- 2nd singular present of verb
vv2-imp -- 2nd present imperative, verb
vv2x -- 2nd singular present negative, verb
vvb -- present tense, verg
vvbx -- present tense negative, verb
vvd -- past tense, verb
vvd2 -- 2nd singular past of verb
vvd2x -- 2nd singular past negative, verb
vvdp -- past plural, verb
vvdx -- past tense negative, verb
vvg -- present participle, verb
vvi -- infinitive, verb
vvn -- past participle, verb
vvp -- plural present, verb
vvz -- 3rd singular preseent, verb
vvzx -- 3rd singular present negative, verb
xx -- negative
zz -- unknown or unparsable token

EEBO-TCP data preparation by Anupam Basu, made possible by Morphadorner, developed by Philip R. "Pib" Burns of Northwestern University. Interactive visualization by Stephen Pentecost.

Anupam Basu